Permanent magnets with innovative design based on Mischmetal

Project title: Permanent magnets with innovative design based on Mischmetal

Project Acronym: PerMagMisch

Project code:  PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2021-1386

Contract No.: 595PED/2022

Project Director:  Dr. Marian Grigoras

Tel: +40 232 430680
Fax: +40 232 231132

Project Funding: 518.795,00 RON

Funding Agency: Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI)

Project Duration: 21/06/2022-20/02/2024 (20 months)

Project Summary:

The discovery of Nd-Fe-B magnets in the 80’s was an important step in the history of permanent magnets (PMs) but also in the evolution of technology, in terms of the large number of applications generated. At that time, the Sm-Co based PMs had to be replaced because Co was a strategic and expensive material. However, in recent years both Nd and other rare earths (RE) such as Dy, Tb, which are part of Nd-Fe-B magnets have also become critical materials. In addition, the demand for PM has grown exponentially in recent years, mainly due to the accelerated development of areas such as green energy and robotics. Consequently, innovative design and development of new types of PMs with good performance, but without critical RE-has become an absolute priority.
Our project aims to develop and obtain a new type of nanocomposite PMs, based on a mixture of nanopowders (MMFeCoB / FeCo), able to present energy product between ferrite and NdFeB magnets and to fill the current gap between them. The motivation for replacing critical RE with Mischmetal (MM) is given by the fact that MM is a natural ore, consisting of a mixture of RE (La, Ce, Pr and Nd), and can be used directly without separating the elements. It is important to note that all RE are extracted from the associated ore and the process of separating and purifying is very expensive and polluting. The motivation for the development of exchange-coupled nanocomposite magnets is given by the fact that they theoretically have the highest maximum energy product.
Our idea is to obtain each component (soft and hard magnetic) in the form of nanopowders with optimal dimensions to ensure maximum exchange coupling and then turn them into PM with desired properties.

Main Objective of the Project

The main objective of the project is to increase the TRL of existing MM-FeCo-B ribbons by developing a new type of exchange-coupled permanent magnets, based on MM-FeCo-B nanopowders (as hard phase) and FeCo nanopowders (as soft phase).

Specific Objectives of the Project

Processing of MM(FeCo)B ribbons with hard magnetic properties and FeCo ribbons with soft magnetic properties by cryo-milling and high energy ball milling techniques, respectively.

Preparation of MM2(FeCo)14B / Fe65Co35 mixed nanopowders with optimum mass rate, as precursors for permanent magnets.

Development of permanent magnets by SPS technique; Establishing and optimization of compaction / alignment parameters (time, pressure, temperature, magnetic field).

Testing and validation of the demonstration model (permanent magnets) by thorough investigation of magnetic properties and performances.

Expected results:

  • MM2(FeCo)14B- hard magnetic nanopowders;
  • Fe65Co35 - soft magnetic nanopowders;
  • mixtures of MM2(FeCo)14B/Fe65Co35 nanopowders with optimum hard/soft ratio;
  • permanent magnets based on (MM2(FeCo)14B/Fe65Co35 ) nanopowders;
  • 2 articles sent to ISI-ranked journals;
  • 2 communications in international conferences;
  • 1 patent application at national level

Achieved results (corresponding to the stages completed in the period 2022-2023):

(1) M. Grigoras, M. Lostun, G. Ababei, M. Porcescu, G. Stoian, and N. Lupu “Development of Mischmetal-(FeCo)-B ribbons with improved magnetic properties by addition of Si” under review to ISI-ranked journal “Metals” Q2.

Conference presentations:
(1) “Effects of Silicon addition on magnetic properties of MM-Fe-B ribbons” M. Lostun, H. Chiriac, M. Porcescu, G. Stoian, N. Lupu and M. Grigoras.
14th International Conference on Physics of Advanced Materials (ICPAM-14), September 8-15, 2022, Dubrovnik, Croatia.

(2) “Optimizing the magnetic properties of MM-FeCo-B ribbons by the addition of Si, Ti, and Ta elements” M. Grigoras, M. Lostun, M. Porcescu, G. Stoian, and N. Lupu
13th Joint European Magnetic Symposia (JEMS-2023) 27th Aug-1st Sep, 2023 Madrid, Spain.

National patent application:
“Material magnetic pe bază de mischmetal cu adiții de elemente cu punct de topire mediu-înalt și procedeu de obținere a acestuia” M. Grigoras, M. Lostun, N. Lupu.

• Hard magnetic nanopowders based on MM2(FeCo)14B-phase with nanocrystalline structure and optimized composition;
• Fe65Co35 - soft magnetic nanopowders;
• Mixtures of MM2(FeCo)14B/Fe65Co35 nanopowders with an optimal ratio of 80/20;
• Permanent magnets based on (MM2(FeCo)14B/Fe65Co35 ) nanopowders, with (BH)max=13.4 MGOe.


2022 Activity Report Summary (in Romanian)
2023 Activity Report Summary (in Romanian)
2024 Activity Report Summary (in Romanian)
Final Report Summary (in Romanian)